Never Ending Dedication….
Many ways can be used to measure local development performance. It can use economic, social, or environmental indicators implemented in each area. This paper analyzes the using of human development indicators to measure local development performance. The result of the measurement is used to improve local development performance through the achievement of Millennium Development Goals and human development indicators. Based on some provinces experience, there are some stages that can be done to improve local development performance, that are (1) indicators choice, (2) data arrangement and analysis, (3) planning and budgeting, (4) implementing, (5) monitoring and evaluating, and (6) improvement. But, in fact, there are some requirements in implementing the stages said above, they are: (1) the availability of uptodate, relevant, and qualified data, (2) strong political goodwill and commitment, (3) local capacity to handle data collecting and analysis, planning and budgetting, and also monitoring and respons, (4) social empowerment and local participation.
Keywords: human development indicators, improvement, local development
One the aim of local autonomy policy is to increase the community welfare through local development implementation that is spread evenly. The essence of local development as implemented of the Law No. 32/2004 is to create autonomous local government. Related to this concept, the execution of local autonomy has been oriented to the increasing of the community welfare focused to absorb local people needs that rise in the community. Hence, local governments are responsible to implement better local development performance. It means local development should have a good performance based on some indicators that take sides to community welfare.
In the beginning, economic indicators were used to measure local development performance, like GNP (Gross National Product) or GNP/capita. Based on empirical data from many countries, it showed that GNP cannot reflect the real people’s quality of life. Though many countries might have high GNP/capita unfortunately it doesn’t mean that their community has good quality of life. Those data proved that quality of life is unequal with GNP/capita (Arief, 2000).
Recently, social and environment indicators are more used to measure local development performance than economic indicators. But, the problem is, it is not easy to create compatible, valid and reliable indicators to measure local development performance comprehensively. This paper will try to analyze some indicators that used to measure local development performance especially social indicators.
2. DEVELOPMENT DEFINITION
The essence of development is change the existing state to better condition (Tjokroamidjojo and Mustofadidjaja, 1992). So that development activity should be done directed and planned. It means the step and goal to be attained, must be defined and cleared.
Black (1991) said that “Development is such term. It has no precise meaning, no generally accepted definition”. Moreover, it is appropriate with the essence of development above; Bryant & White (1987) gave the meaning of development as “people capability improvement to influence their future”. It means development activity done not only give the possibility to group of people to plan and to do change, but also should able to give opportunity or chance to an individual to do something or to do changes for their future.
The implication of the meaning above is: first, pay attention to “capacity” that is what should be done to develop community and an individual capability to make changes. Second, arrest “justice” that is to eliminate unfair attention to certain group because it will destroy and reduce their capacity. Third, arising of power and authority, in meaning if only community has certain power and authority, so they will take development benefit (Bryan & White, 1987).
The essence of development definition above is the necessity of community involvement and participation, individually or together in every development activity. Actually, development is an effort series done continually to reach the level of community life that is prosperous extrinsic and intrinsic. The effort is done through the exploitation of potent that is had qualified human, capability, and the progress of knowledge and technology, and also pay attention to global developing threat. Sustainable development is done continually in all aspects of life, so people feel save, comfort, secure, and they can work well and love their country.
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